The International Geographical Union’s Commission on Biogeography and Biodiversity focuses on improving the understanding of the concept of ecosystem and its conservation. There are a variety of ecosystems such as those that occur in deserts, forests, wetlands, mountains, lakes, rivers, and agricultural landscapes. In each ecosystem, living creatures, including humans, form a community, interacting with one another and with the air, water, and soil around them. This can be applied to diversity at all levels of biological organization: diversity among individuals within a particular species (genetic diversity), the diversity of species in an ecosystem, and the diversity of ecosystems on Earth. At the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, world leaders agreed on a comprehensive strategy for sustainable development -- meeting our needs while ensuring that we leave a healthy and viable world for future generations. One of the key agreements adopted at Rio was the Convention on Biological Diversity. This pact among the vast majority of the world’s governments sets out commitments for maintaining the world’s ecological underpinnings as we go about the business of economic development. The Commission will focus on three main goals: the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources.